What makes us human? -biotech.vision

What makes us human?

What makes us human? -biotech.vision
Human DNA is similar to that of chimpanzees, which are our closest relatives in the process of evolution.

Stem cell researchers from Lund University in Sweden have found some of what we call DNA that appears to contribute to differences that, despite all our similarities, could explain why our brains work so well. The study was published in the Stem Cell journal.

Chimpanzees are our closest relatives, research shows that our relationships go back to our ancestors. About five or six million years ago, our revolutionary path transformed, leading today’s chimpanzees into Homo Sapiens, the human race of the 21st century.

In a new study, cellular researchers from Lund looked at the content of our DNA in the brains of humans and chimpanzees and found the answer.

“Instead of studying living people with chimpanzees, we used plant cells. Our colleagues in Germany, the United States, and Japan converted stem cells from stem cells. Then we looked at the cells that we developed brain cell stimulation.” Jakobsson, a professor, and neurologist at Lund University led the research.

Using stem cells, the researchers induced brain cells directly from humans and chimpanzees and used two types of cells. The researchers later found that humans and chimpanzees use some of their DNA in different ways, which appear to play a role in the development of our brains.

“The part of the DNA we have described should be no different. The so-called ‘junk DNA’ generators,” the DNA repeated, were useless. First, the researchers needed answers from proteins that contain DNA – protein genes – which make up only about two percent of all our DNA – and then they looked at the proteins themselves as examples of diversity. “

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New research suggests that the differences in protein genes could be due to the existence of so-called “junk DNA,” which has been found to be unusable, as well as much of our DNA.

“This suggests that the evolutionary structure of the human brain is a more complex genetic process than we previously thought, with responses assuming it resides in two percent of the genome’s DNA. We show that this is a brain development that is capable of hiding in 98. percent deprivation, apparently important. It is an excellent result “.

The genealogical parent used by the Lund researchers is adaptable and also helps with this type of test. This process was recognized by the 2012 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. Japanese researcher Shinya Yamanaka found that specialized cells can be transformed and produced in all types of tissues. For the Lund researchers, in the brain. Without this system, it would be impossible to study the pathways between humans and chimpanzees using appropriate methods.

Why do researchers want to explore the differences between humans and chimpanzees?

“I think the brain is the key to understanding what a person is doing.

Johan Jakobsson believes that new research in the future could help provide genetic answers to questions about mental illnesses such as mental illness, a disease that appears to be more common in humans.

“But there is still a long way to go before we can be there because instead of looking for 2% of the developed DNA, we might be forced to look at 100% of the total, which is a very complex study,” he said.

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