The focus of this research is the teaching of non-scientific topics in biotechnology through case studies. Developed as part of Science for all, our Biotechnology, Environment, and Related Issues module aims to increase students’ scientific and technological literacy and higher-order thinking skills. The study aimed to examine the ability of non-scientific students to use different thinking skills in analyzing the environmental and moral conflicts presented by the case studies in the Biotechnology module. The survey population consists of approximately 200 unscientific graduates in eight grades 10-12 from heterogeneous communities. We found significant improvement in student knowledge and understanding and superior thinking skills at all academic levels. The scores of students with a low level of education in the category of knowledge and perception were higher than those of their peers with a high level of education. In higher-order thinking skills – questioning, reasoning, and systems thinking – a significant difference was found in favor of high-level students. The gap between the low-educated and the highly educated has narrowed. Most students indicated that the biotechnology topics they studied were interesting and relevant. Based on these findings, we advocate for a curriculum that exposes students to scientific controversies through case studies with environmental and moral implications. Our research has shown that this approach can contribute to the development of science and technology literacy, along with the higher-order thinking skills of non-scientific graduates. © 2003 Wiley Magazines, Inc. Science.